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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 108-114

HPV and cervical cancer: An immunological aspect

1 Department of Biotechnology, BBA University, Lucknow, India
2 Department of Clinical Immunology, SGPGIMS, Lucknow, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Vikas Agarwal
Department of Clinical Immunology, SGPGIMS, Lucknow
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jco.jco_18_21

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Evidence supports that the occurrence of cervical cancer is mainly due to viral infection and the most common virus found in association with this type of cancer is the Human papillomavirus (HPV), a DNA virus. The reason for virulence is its integration in the host’s genome and continual activity of E6 and E7 proteins, which further interfere with the tumor suppressor protein’s activity. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified 12 HPV types as group 1 carcinogens that have a high risk of carcinogenicity. Due to lack of access and utilization of preventative health care, the occurrence and death rates from cervical cancer remain considerable. The diagnosis of cervical cancer can be done through cytological screening programs and microbial screening. Knowing the microenvironment for the development of such a type of cancer plays a prominent role in the identification of preventive measures. Prevention of this type of cancer can be done through diagnosis at an early phase, with primary prevention using vaccines and secondary prevention using a highly sensitive HPV-DNA test and by propagating the knowledge of such infection and its cure. New biomarkers will be important to decide who among the HPV-positive women needs to be referred for further evaluation or treatment. The implementations of new prevention strategies is very important to completely eradicate such cancers. In this review, the microenvironment, etiology, and epidemiology of cervical cancer have been emphasized.

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